English grammar: where to start?
To speak any language well, it is not enough to have a large vocabulary. After all, you have to put all the words together in order to get your message across, and you need grammar.
Many people find this language learning aspect boring and difficult, but you don’t have to be grammar afraid. The most important thing is to get a grasp of the basic rules and practice them regularly.
You won’t be able to grasp all the grammar right from the start. Today, we will tell you the main points you need to pay attention to if you are just starting to learn the language.
The English language base is the verbs to do, to be and to have. They are used not only to convey their meaning, but also as auxiliaries to form compound tenses.
The verb to do plays a particularly important role because it is used as an auxiliary verb to form questions and negation.
For example:I sing. – Я пою.
- I don’t sing. – Я не пою.
- Do I sing? – Я пою?
- Another important point about verbs in English: you should always pay attention and remember how a verb changes in the third person singular in the present tense Present Simple. Compare:
- I sing. — Я пою.
- You sing. — Ты поешь/Вы поете.
- He/she/it sings. — Он/она/оно поет.
- We sing. — Мы поем.
- They sing. — Они поют.
Sentence’s structure and word order
In English, narrative and interrogative sentences in most cases always have a subject (pronoun or noun) and a predicate (verb).
The word order in sentences is constant:
- a narrative sentence = subject + predicate;
- interrogative sentence = auxiliary verb + subject + predicate (main verb).
- You eat. – Ты ешь.
- Do you eat? – Ты ешь?
The English language a great advantage is that English nouns do not change genders or cases. So, the most important thing to remember with nouns is how plurals are formed. Moreover, it is formed very simply by adding the ending -s (-es).
- Apple – apples (яблоко – яблоки)
- Box – boxes (коробка – коробки)
Nouns another important companion in English is articles. There are articles two main types: indefinite (a/an) and definite (the). The indefinite article can only be used with singular nouns. The definite article can be used with nouns in both singular and plural.
- An apple – яблоко (some indefinite, any apple)
- The apple – яблоко (a specific apple)
- The apples – яблоки (some specific apples)
There are verbs 12 main tenses in English. But to begin with, it is enough to remember three basic times:
Present Simple – настоящее простое
Past Simple – прошлое простое
Future Simple – будущее простое
A little later, you need to add to them:
- Present Continuous – настоящее продолжительное
- Present Perfect – настоящее совершенное
These five tenses are the most commonly used in the English language, and with their help you will be able to express virtually any thought..
Adjective comparison degrees
Like nouns, adjectives in English do not change genders or cases. In addition, unlike nouns, they don’t even change in number, retaining the same form in both singular and plural. The main thing to remember for adjectives is how comparative (comparative and superlative) degrees are formed.
There are forming comparative degrees two ways, which apply to all adjectives with some exceptions.
The first way is with -er (comparative) and -est (superlative). This method is used for short adjectives 1-2 syllables consisting.
Long (длинный) – longer (длиннее) – longest (самый длинный)
The second way is with the words more (comparative degree) and most (superlative degree). This method is used for long adjectives 2 or more syllables consisting.
Beautiful (красивый) – more beautiful (красивее) – most beautiful (самый красивый).
We hope our article was useful for you. We invite you to take our English courses for adults at our school to start learning English or to improve your knowledge. Take an English level test on our website and sign up for a free trial lesson of English online. With EnglishPapa, you will definitely begin to speak English!